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Antibiotics for colds are prescribed by a doctor in the case when the human body can not cope with the infection on its own.
Usually dangerous signals of the attack of malicious bacteria are an increase in body temperature to over 38 ° C, as well as a runny nose, reddening of the throat and other symptoms that often accompany a cold: inflammation of the eye mucosa, sore throat, shortness of breath, dry cough, headache, etc. . Antibacterial drugs will help to cope with bacteria, however, they should be prescribed only by a medical specialist, since uncontrolled self-treatment with antibiotics can adversely affect human health.
Cold treatment with antibiotics
Antibiotics for colds are necessary in extreme cases, when the immune system does not cope with pathogens that attack the human body. Many of us, at the very first symptoms of a cold, are wondering which antibiotic to take, perceiving it as a miracle cure for all diseases. However, this is a deep misconception, since antiviral drugs are indicated for the treatment of influenza and acute respiratory diseases, and only if the patient’s condition has worsened and the bacterial infection has “connected”, a correctly selected antibiotic will help. Thus, it is unacceptable to drink an antibiotic at the first sign of a cold!
Treatment of colds with antibiotics should be rational, and for this, consultation of an experienced doctor is necessary, which will determine the severity of the patient's condition and prescribe the antibacterial drug that will be most effective in a particular case.
The common cold (ARVI) can be considered a rather insidious disease, which manifests itself regardless of age, human health, and weather conditions. Acute respiratory disease is one of the most common diseases worldwide and lasts an average week without manifestation of complications. Usually adults get a cold two to three times a year on average. Today, doctors have more than two hundred viruses that cause inflammation of the respiratory system. It should be noted that the common cold is a contagious disease - it can be transmitted by airborne droplets and often affects the bronchi, trachea, and lungs. A viral infection lives longer in mucus than in air or a dry place. In order to start treatment in time, one should objectively assess the patient's condition. The main symptoms of a cold are:
- inflammation of the lymph nodes, which manifests itself in the form of seals on the back of the head, neck, behind the ears, under the lower jaw, when pressed, the patient has painful sensations,
- abundant secretion of mucus from the nose (runny nose), nasal congestion, as well as unusual dryness of its mucosa,
- sore throat, dry cough, hoarse voice,
- redness of the eyes and lacrimation,
- increase in body temperature from 37 to 38.5 ° C,
- indigestion, nausea and vomiting (with damage to the body by rotavirus).
A cold is never asymptomatic, therefore, at the first signs of its development, you must consult a doctor in order to prevent possible complications in time.
For the treatment of a running cold, an accurate diagnosis is needed, which will allow you to choose the optimal medicine, i.e. antibiotic. Each group of antibacterial drugs is intended to treat a specific type of bacteria, therefore, an antibiotic is prescribed depending on the lesion foci. For example, with inflammation of the respiratory tract, it is necessary to choose a drug that effectively fights bacteria that cause inflammatory processes in the respiratory organs: for example, Amoxiclav, Amoxicillin, Augmentin (i.e. antibiotics of the penicillin group). For various respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia, it must be borne in mind that they are caused by bacteria, most of which are very resistant to penicillin. For this reason, it is best to use Levofloxacin or Avelox to treat this disease. Cephalosporin group antibiotics (Suprax, Zinnat, Zinacef) will help to cure bronchitis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and macrolides (Sumamed, Hemomycin) will cope with SARS caused by chlamydia and mycoplasma.
Treatment of a cold with antibiotics should depend on which category the disease belongs to. With ARVI, first of all, it is necessary to use antiviral drugs, because they purposefully affect the immune system, strengthening it and helping to cope with a viral attack. Antibiotics with this diagnosis are pointless to use, and this is contraindicated by doctors. The sooner ARVI treatment begins with an effective antiviral drug, the more likely it is to complete it faster. However, if a cold is caused by a bacterial infection, you should not neglect the use of antibiotics. At the same time, it is very important to pay attention to the state of your own body in time and find out the exact cause of the common cold in order to choose the most optimal antibacterial drug. Indeed, antibiotics must be taken very seriously, because they can not only help, but also harm in case of the wrong choice. So, you should clearly set the boundaries that determine in which cases you can prescribe antibiotics, and in which - you can not. Nowadays, indications for antibiotic therapy are:
- purulent tonsillitis (tonsillitis),
- purulent otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear),
- purulent sinusitis (purulent frontal sinusitis or sinusitis),
- purulent lymphadenitis,
- pneumonia, pneumonia.
Antibiotics for pregnant women with a cold
Cold antibiotics, as effective drugs that suppress the growth of pathogens, occur only in cases of complications caused by the development of a bacterial infection in the body. Their use allows you to suppress the growth of not only pathogenic bacteria, but also some fungi, thereby making life easier for the patient with a cold. You should remember the dangers of self-medication with antibacterial agents, especially when it comes to children and pregnant women. In such cases, taking antibiotics should be taken as responsibly as possible, following only the recommendations and competent appointments of an experienced doctor.
Antibiotics for pregnant women with colds should be selected taking into account their effect on the fetus and only in those extreme cases that really require the use of these drugs. To select the most suitable antibiotic for the treatment of a pregnant woman, you must first determine the causative agent of the disease, and also identify its sensitivity to a particular drug. If it is impossible to conduct such a study, broad-spectrum antibiotics are usually prescribed. Antibiotics of the penicillin series (for example, Ampicillin, Oxacillin, etc.), as well as cephalosporins (for example, Cefazolin) and some macrolides (from which erythromycin and Azithromycin can be isolated) are considered the most harmless to the mother and child. It is these drugs that doctors prefer when prescribing treatment for pregnant women.
The dosage of an antibiotic for a pregnant woman is determined by the doctor, usually it does not differ from the dosage of the drug for the rest. The expectant mother should carefully follow the doctor’s recommendations and in no case reduce the dose of the medicine, because this can provoke the opposite effect: in such a situation, the antibiotic will not have such an effective effect aimed at the destruction of microbes, and will not be able to completely suppress a bacterial infection.
Be sure to take into account the fact that antibiotics are most effective only in the treatment of infectious diseases of bacterial origin. In other cases, they are not able to have the desired effect and can even harm the body. For example, antibacterial drugs will be powerless with:
- SARS and influenza (in this case, diseases are caused by viruses, for the destruction of which it is necessary to use antiviral drugs),
- inflammatory processes (antibiotics are not anti-inflammatory drugs),
- elevated temperature (do not confuse the effect of antibiotics with the action of antipyretic and analgesics),
- coughing in pregnant women if it is caused by a viral infection, an allergic reaction, the development of bronchial asthma, but not by the action of microorganisms,
- intestinal disorders.
If we consider the effect of antibiotics on the fetus, then according to the results of numerous medical studies, we can conclude that these drugs do not provoke the development of any congenital malformations in the child and do not affect its genetic apparatus. But at the same time, some groups of antibacterial drugs possess the so-called. embryotoxic effect, i.e. can lead to impaired renal function of the fetus, dental bookmarks, affect the auditory nerve, and also cause a number of other adverse deviations.
Antibiotics for pregnant women with colds have the most adverse effect on the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy, therefore, if there is such a possibility, treatment is recommended to be transferred to the second trimester. However, if there is an urgent need for such treatment, the doctor should prescribe antibiotics with the lowest degree of toxicity to the expectant mother, and also strictly monitor the condition of the pregnant woman.
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What antibiotics to drink for colds?
Antibiotics for colds should be used according to the doctor’s recommendations in cases where the patient’s condition indicates the development of complications, such as tonsillitis, purulent sinusitis, pneumonia. However, first of all, with a cold you need to use proven folk remedies and drink antiviral drugs, the action of which is aimed at the destruction of a viral infection. Do not resort to antibiotics if the cause of the disease is not established. It is necessary to weigh all the pros and cons of taking antibacterial drugs, taking into account their side effects and possible complications.
What antibiotics to drink with a cold, only a doctor knows who determines the degree and type of complications caused by a cold, and then prescribes an antibiotic of the corresponding group:
- Penicillins (Augmentin, Ampicillin, etc.) have a pronounced bactericidal effect and are effective in treating bacterial infections and severe forms of ENT diseases (tonsillitis, purulent otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia, etc.). The action of these antibacterial drugs is aimed at the destruction of the walls of bacteria, which causes their death. A positive feature of penicillins is their low level of toxicity, so they are widely used in pediatrics.
- Cephalosporins have an active bactericidal action aimed at destroying the bacterial cell membrane. Usually, antibiotics of this group are prescribed for the treatment of pleurisy, bronchitis, pneumonia and are administered by injection (intravenously or intramuscularly), only Cephalexins are taken orally. They cause fewer allergic reactions than penicillins, however, in rare cases, allergy manifestations, as well as impaired renal function, still occur.
- Macrolides (azalides and ketolides) have an active bacteriostatic effect and are effective in the treatment of SARS. The first macrolide was Erythromycin, which was used by patients with an allergic reaction to penicillins.
- Fluoroquinolones (Levofloxacin, etc.) are used to destroy gram-negative bacteria (mycoplasmas, pneumococcus, chlamydia, E. coli). Quickly penetrating the cells, they infect the microbes that are there. To date, they are the most non-toxic antibacterial drugs that do not cause allergies and are safe to use.
To find out which antibiotics to drink for a cold in a particular case, you should consult a medical specialist. For example, for the treatment of various infectious and inflammatory diseases, Flemoxin Solutab, containing amoxicillin, is often prescribed in our time. With bronchitis, pharyngitis, acute tonsillitis and otitis media, pneumonia and a number of other infectious and inflammatory diseases, the drug Suprax can be prescribed, which should be taken in accordance with the doctor's recommendations, because In the case of uncontrolled treatment of a cold with this drug, adverse reactions may occur in the form of a violation of the intestinal microflora. This can lead to severe diarrhea or pseudomembranous colitis. An effective antimicrobial drug is chloramphenicol, which is used for infectious diseases. The dosage of the drug and the duration of treatment, as in other cases, must be strictly established by the attending physician.
Good cold antibiotic
Antibiotics for colds should be used if after taking antiviral drugs in the first days of the disease there were no improvements, and especially when the patient's condition worsened: this means that, in addition to viruses, the body was also attacked by bacteria. Such drugs are good "helpers" in ridding the human body of toxins and all kinds of pathogenic microbes, however, the choice of antibiotic in one case or another remains with the doctor, because should correspond to the indications and course of a particular disease. The fact is that an antibacterial drug that is not strong enough may not fully cope with the complications caused by the common cold or flu, and a “powerful” antibiotic can harm the body’s immune system.
The beginning of the use of antibiotics in medical practice dates back to 1928 and is associated with the name of the Englishman Fleming. It was he who discovered the substance "penicillin", which can lead to the death of many microbes and bacteria, and thereby made a real revolution in medicine, because Since then, many previously fatal diseases have become treatable: scarlet fever, pneumonia, tuberculosis, pneumonia, etc. During World War II, antibiotics helped doctors save the lives of millions of injured people. To this day, these faithful "helpers" help doctors fight for the health of many patients.
A good antibiotic for colds is a drug that is selected taking into account the type and course of the disease.Antibiotic treatment should be carried out carefully, after consulting with a doctor who will choose the best drug from the four main classes of antibiotics with different effects, which have proven to be effective in treating various complications caused by bacterial infections. These classes include: penicillins (Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Amoxiclav, Augmentin and others), macrolides (Azithromycin and others): fluoroquinolones (Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin and others), cephalosporins (Cefixime, Cefuroxime, Suprax and others).
Before you start taking any medications, it is advisable to try to cope with a mild cold using traditional medicine methods and recipes. For example, make inhalations, foot baths, put a compress or mustard plasters. It is necessary to increase the amount of fluid consumed, as well as expand the diet with natural vitamins, i.e. Fresh fruits and vegetables. At the first signs of a worsening condition with a cold, you should immediately go to the hospital to prevent the development of complications. In the case when a bacterial infection attacked the body, there is a need to urgently “connect” an antibiotic, because in this situation, we are literally talking about saving the patient’s life. The patient should understand that only the attending physician can prescribe an antibacterial drug, and it is necessary to strictly observe the dosage indicated by him, as well as the intervals of administration. Self-medication can result in significant risk to human health.
Antibiotics for colds can have a number of negative consequences, especially when improperly selected during self-treatment. Among these side effects, allergies, gastrointestinal disorders, dysbiosis, and depression of the state of the immune system are most common.
It should also be remembered that it is not recommended to take an antibiotic for more than 5 consecutive days, however, a decrease in the period of treatment with antibiotics can lead to the fact that the infection will not be eliminated from the body, and this, in turn, will cause complications in the form malfunctions of the heart and kidneys. If after three days the patient does not feel relief of his condition, it is necessary to ask the doctor about changing the drug to another, more effective one. You should also be careful about combining other drugs with antibiotics - in such cases, you must follow the doctor's recommendations. In no case should you take an antibiotic whose expiration date has expired!
A good antibiotic for a cold will certainly give positive results within three days: the patient will feel better, he will have an appetite, unpleasant symptoms will disappear.
When treating with antibiotics, it is important to take care of reducing their negative effects on the body. To this end, the doctor should ascribe probiotics to the patient - drugs that normalize the intestinal microflora and thereby prevent the development of dysbiosis, strengthen immunity, have a beneficial effect on the work of internal organs, reducing the possibility of side effects and complications.
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Antibiotics for colds for children
Antibiotics for colds should be given with special care to children. Such treatment should be prescribed by the attending physician, who needs to seek advice immediately after the first signs of the disease - the child has a runny nose, cough, fever. Typically, temperatures above 38.5 ° C indicate that the child’s immunity is trying to get rid of the virus on its own, in which case the doctor prescribes antipyretics. If after 3-5 days the baby's well-being does not improve, and the temperature is still high, it is recommended to start taking the appropriate antibiotic, but only strictly as directed by the pediatrician and with confirmation of the bacterial nature of the disease.
Antibiotics for colds for children are a serious test for a growing body, so they should not be used immediately after the onset of symptoms of the disease. If parents believe that taking a “powerful” antibiotic is the only effective treatment for acute respiratory viral infections or acute respiratory infections, this is a profound mistake! The effect of antibacterial agents on the children's body for no particular reason can be very negative, and sometimes even destructive. Not to mention the use of antibiotics to treat infants, which in itself is blasphemous. The common cold should be treated with antiviral drugs, the result of which usually does not appear immediately, but after a 3-5-day period. At the same time, the febrile process in children, which is most often caused by infections of the respiratory tract of the viral type, can fluctuate within 3-7 days, and sometimes even more. It is not worth mistaking to believe that antibiotics are an alternative to antitussive drugs, as a cough for a cold is a protective reaction of the child’s body, which usually lasts after the disappearance of the remaining symptoms of the disease. The question of prescribing antibiotic treatment for a child is decided by an experienced pediatrician who will assess the condition of the baby and only in case of emergency will choose the optimal drug. Parents should carefully follow all the doctor's recommendations, including regarding the method of administration and dosage of the antibacterial drug. It is also important not to discontinue treatment of the child before the deadline.
Some antibiotics for colds for children are strictly prohibited. First of all, these are medicines of the so-called. tetracycline group (Tetracycline, Doxycycline, Minocycline, etc.), which can disrupt the formation of tooth enamel in a baby, as well as antibacterial fluorinated quinolones that have the ending “−floxacin” in their names (for example, Ofloxacin, Pefloxacin), which are negative affect the formation of articular cartilage in a child. In pediatrics, Levomycetin is also not allowed, the action of which is aimed at the development of aplastic anemia (the process of inhibition of hematopoiesis) and can lead to death.
Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Levofloxacin, Flemoxin Solutab, Moksimak, Zinnat, Aveloks, Amoksiklav, etc. can be noted among the antibacterial drugs used in pediatrics. The choice of a drug depends entirely on the experience and professionalism of the pediatrician, who must determine which antibiotic will be the best assistant and will benefit in the treatment of complications after a cold in each case.
So, antibiotics for colds should be used to treat children only in cases of urgent need. This will not lead to the desired recovery, but only exacerbate the situation, because the effect of the antibacterial drug can be damaging to the baby’s immunity, which will increase the risk of infection return.
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Names of antibiotics for colds
Antibiotics for colds should be selected especially carefully, without resorting to self-medication, but after consulting a doctor who will determine the degree of complications and prescribe the most effective remedy. In addition, when taking antibiotics, you need to follow these recommendations:
- in treatment, only one, the most effective drug from a certain group should be used,
- if after the first antibiotic intake after two days the patient’s condition has not improved, and the temperature has not decreased, there may be a need to change the drug,
- you cannot combine taking an antibiotic with antipyretic drugs, since they “lubricate” its effect,
- the period of antibiotic treatment should be at least 5 days, or even more. It is this duration of treatment that allows the drug to fully cope with the pathogen,
- in severe colds and complications of the disease, the patient should be immediately hospitalized in a hospital, and antibiotic therapy should be carried out under the supervision of a physician.
It is useful for everyone to know the names of antibiotics for colds (at least a few of them), because, in this way, a person will have at least some idea about the drug that the doctor will prescribe. Antibiotics are traditionally divided into several classes:
The penicillin class includes such names of antibiotics as Ampicillin, Augmentin, Amoxicillin, Amoxiclav, etc.
The most common macrolide class names are Erythromycin, Azithromycin, etc. (such drugs are considered the most powerful in treating bacterial infections). The fluoroquinolone class antibiotics include Levofloxacin and Moxifloxacin, and the cephalosporins class includes Aksetil, Cefixim (Suprax), Cefuroxime axetil, etc.
The main goal in the treatment of various infectious complications caused by the common cold is to provide the body with effective assistance aimed at quickly getting rid of pathogenic microbes and toxic substances. In order for the treatment to give a quick positive result, it is necessary to make the right choice of an antibiotic, and only an experienced doctor can do this.
It should be remembered that antibiotics for colds are not so harmless as they might seem, they can cause a number of side effects, especially if they are not used in those cases. For example, many do not understand or simply do not know that only an antiviral drug can cope with a viral infection of the respiratory tract, and they begin to use antibiotics immediately when they develop symptoms of a cold, such as a runny nose, cough, fever. This is a big mistake, because improper use of antibiotics can cause great harm to an already weakened human immunity. Such drugs are needed only for the treatment of bacterial infections, the development of which can be caused by complications of the common cold. Usually, antibiotics are prescribed if, after 4-5 days after the onset of the disease, the patient does not have an improvement or, on the contrary, it gets worse.
Amoxiclav for colds
Antibiotics for colds should be used purposefully, depending on the condition of the patient and the characteristics of the course of the disease. Among the common drugs used in modern medicine, a separate place is taken by the effective antibacterial drug Amoxiclav. He has established himself as a reliable tool for the treatment of various complications caused by colds and other adverse factors, in particular, such as the occurrence of infections after surgery.
Amoxiclav for colds is successfully used in modern medicine for the treatment of so-called. "Mixed" infections, as well as to prevent possible infection of the patient during surgery. The mixed type of infection is most often caused by gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, as well as anaerobes (including strains), manifesting as chronic forms of otitis media, sinusitis and osteomyelitis, cholecystitis, odontogenic infections, aspiration pneumonia, various infections of the abdominal cavity, etc.
Amoxiclav is a combination of two substances: aminopenicillin, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, which has a pronounced bactericidal effect. A detailed medical study of the microbiological properties of this drug suggests that Amoxiclav, by combining the above active substances, inhibits the synthesis of bacterial walls and has a stable antibacterial effect on a variety of pathogens: Neisseria spp., Streptococcus spp. (various groups), Staphylococcus spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Helicobacter pylori, Moraxella catarrhalis, Acinetobacter spp., Haemophilus influenzae and many others. other
The pharmacokinetic properties of Amoxiclav indicate its pronounced advantages compared with other penicillins. So, after taking the drug, there is a rapid absorption of components from the digestive tract, regardless of food intake. The maximum level of drug concentration is achieved approximately 45 minutes after administration. The main way to remove a drug from the body is to excrete it along with urine, feces, and expired air.
Amoxiclav for colds, due to its pronounced antimicrobial activity and unique pharmacokinetic properties, is used to treat a number of infectious diseases accompanied by inflammatory processes:
- infections of the respiratory system (in particular, acute and chronic sinusitis, bronchitis, pharyngeal abscess, pneumonia, etc.),
- otitis media (both acute and chronic)
- infections of the skin, joints, soft tissues and bones,
- urinary tract infections
- various kinds of gynecological infections.
As for the side effects that occur when taking Amoxiclav, in general, the drug is tolerated by patients normally, without any negative reactions from the body. As a percentage, only 8-14% of the total number of patients had side effects in the form of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting). To avoid such side effects, it is recommended to reduce the dosage of the drug and take it with meals.
Antibiotics for colds have an invaluable effect when there is an urgent need to confront the development of pathogenic microbes and bacterial infections. However, summing up, it should be noted again that the use of antibiotics should be agreed with a competent medical specialist. This is the only way to achieve high results in the treatment of post-colds complications and minimize the risk of negative effects of antibacterial agents on human immunity.
When to drink antibiotics for colds and flu
In most cases, respiratory infections are caused by viruses that antibacterial drugs do not work on. Therefore, their reception from the first day of the disease is not justified. Therapy of respiratory diseases with antibiotics is justified if, on the 5-6th day of the course of the flu or the common cold, a person is constantly feeling unwell. As a rule, these are symptoms of a bacterial infection that provokes the development of purulent tonsillitis, acute bronchitis, pneumonia.
Signs of a flu and cold complication:
- after the onset of acute respiratory viral infections, after improvement on day 5-6, the body temperature rises sharply,
- general health worsens, fever, cough, shortness of breath appear,
- worse sore throat, chest, ears,
- lymph nodes are enlarged.
In the treatment of colds and flu with antibiotics, in no case do not interrupt treatment while improving well-being. People who make such a mistake then suffer twice as much. In this case, an improvement in a person’s condition does not mean that the disease has passed. The batch of bacteria died under the influence of antibiotics, but another part of them adapts to the drug and begins to attack the weakened organism with renewed vigor. This leads to a new round of the disease with subsequent complications.
What antibiotics are best for colds
For the treatment of respiratory diseases take bactericidal drugs aimed at the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms. Antibiotics in the fight against colds and flu play the role of heavy artillery when there is a risk of acute complications. For the treatment of respiratory diseases, three main groups of antibacterial drugs are used:
- penicillin - Ampioks, Augmentin, Amoxiclav,
- cephalosporins- cefotaxime, cefpirome, cefazolin,
- macrolides - roxithromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin.
List of effective antibiotics for adults
With a cold of bacterial origin, doctors prescribe antibiotics in extreme cases. Prolonged cough, lingering sore throat, severe fever, stable high body temperature - these are alarming signs of the development of an acute disease. In this case, traditional antiviral drugs, immunostimulants, vitamins and herbs are powerless. For effective therapy, you need to know the best antibiotics for colds for an adult:
Good drug names for kids
For the treatment of bacterial diseases at an early age, antibiotics are used in extreme cases. With pneumonia, acute otitis media, purulent sore throat, which has become a consequence of a respiratory illness, the use of such drugs is justified. The form of antibiotics is prescribed depending on the age of the child. Infants - medicines in injections, older children - in tablets. Babies are not always given injections, it is allowed to open the ampoule and give the child the medicine in the right dosage. Children's antibiotics for colds:
Often, parents mistakenly believe that antibiotic therapy is necessary for the successful treatment of influenza and colds in children. This is a misconception about the effect of antibiotics on the body of a child. In case of viral infections in children, the administration of these drugs is unreasonable even at a high temperature, which persists for a long time.
Antibiotic treatment of children leads to dysbiosis, weakening of the immune system, and anemia. It is advisable for babies to conduct antibacterial therapy exclusively in critical situations. For example, when aerobic streptococcal tonsillitis is observed, acute otitis media, pneumonia, inflammation of the sinuses. The use of antibiotics to treat children with colds and flu without complications is justified for:
- pronounced signs of reduced body resistance - constant subfebrile body temperature, frequent colds and viral diseases, HIV, oncology, congenital immune disorders,
- rachitis, malformations, lack of weight,
- the presence in the child’s history of chronic recurrent otitis media.
Gentle drugs for the treatment of colds in pregnant women
In the treatment of complications of a respiratory disease in a woman in a position or a nursing mother, the effect of an antibiotic on fetal development is taken into account. For treatment, sparing antibacterial drugs are selected. To find the right medicine, the doctor identifies the causative agent of the disease, its resistance to various drugs. If it is impossible to conduct such a study, sparing antibiotics for pregnant women are prescribed:
For the treatment of influenza and colds in pregnant and lactating mothers, in order to avoid the occurrence of dysbiosis, it is advisable to take drugs in the form of injections. To avoid allergic reactions, the use of antibacterial therapy is combined with antihistamines. Chocolate, citrus fruits, and coffee are excluded from the diet of pregnant and lactating women.
Broad-spectrum antibiotic list
With bacterial therapy, drugs aimed at suppressing pathogen groups are prescribed to treat complications of influenza and the common cold. Such drugs are called broad-spectrum antibiotics. They help cure the complications of influenza and acute respiratory infections. Inexpensive pills are effective, as are expensive ones. These types of drugs are dispensed in pharmacies without a prescription. Before taking, read the instructions and read reviews about antibiotics. A good drug has few side effects. Broad-spectrum antibiotics:
Why antibiotics are prescribed for colds
With a cold, mixed infections are usually found. Adenoviruses, rhinoviruses that cause colds, significantly weaken the immune system. And how to increase immunity, read in our article How to raise immunity to an adult.
Bacteria, usually streptococci, staphylococci, with a decrease in their own defenses, multiply, causing inflammation. All these processes occur quickly, in a purely viral form, a cold exists during the first 3-4 days.
Prescribing antibiotics for colds is a justified and necessary measure of treatment for both adults and children. And so that treatment does not harm the patient, the doctor should choose the drug after examination and appropriate tests for sensitivity to the antibiotic.
It is not antibiotics that harm, but their uncontrolled use, a chaotic change of names, non-compliance with the doctor's recommendations.
The first action for a cold is a visit to the clinic, if you feel unwell, call a doctor at home. The appointment of antibiotics, the choice of antiviral drugs are the responsibility of the doctor, self-treatment for colds often ends with a complication.
The benefits of antibiotics for colds
The course of treatment with an adequate drug eliminates the source of the disease, serves as the prevention of complications. Mixed viral and bacterial infections reduce immunity, provoke complications.
The treatment of colds with antibiotics does not only weaken the manifestation of symptoms and improves the well-being of the patient. Antibacterial drugs fight infection at the cellular level, normalize metabolic processes in tissues.
Complications of taking antibiotics
The disadvantages of taking antibiotics include the suppression of their own beneficial intestinal microflora, which creates the condition for the development of pathogenic microorganisms.
The uncontrolled use of antibiotics without examining the sensitivity of infection to the drug leads to the emergence of new strains of bacteria that are resistant to the most powerful drugs, the emergence of "superinfection".
The use of antibiotics for colds without taking into account contraindications leads to severe damage to the liver and kidneys, which is accompanied by a worsening of the patient's condition.
The choice of an antibiotic only by name, without knowledge of the peculiarities of taking the drug for colds, without tests and recommendations of a doctor, can significantly delay recovery and make it difficult for the doctor to work after treatment for complications.
When treated with antibiotics
Antimicrobials are prescribed for colds to people with signs of reduced immunity, which are characterized by:
- elevated temperature
- the presence of chronic inflammation of a bacterial, fungal nature,
- lack of treatment outcome with antiviral drugs for 4 days.
Antibiotics are prescribed against influenza and the common cold in combination with antiviral treatment for cancer patients suffering from AIDS.
Groups of antibiotics for colds
Choosing which antibiotics to take with a cold, they are guided by the localization of inflammation, the nature and intensity of the manifestation of the disease.
Usually, when a patient is contacted, broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed that act on most typical pathogens of nasopharyngeal inflammation.
Then, according to a bacterial study, either continue the course of treatment, or change the antibiotic to a more sensitive to pathogenic microflora.
The list of antibiotics for colds includes drugs from the penicillin, cephalosporin series, macrolides, fluoroquinolones.
A large group of penicillins is represented by Ampicillin, Augmentin, Amoxicillin, Amoxiclav, Flemoxin Solutab, Amosin, Ecobol, Benzicillin, Bicillin.
Penicillins are effective antibiotics for flu and colds, but treatment with drugs of this group is complicated by the risk of allergies, as well as the instability of the compound to the action of enzymes.
An allergic reaction to penicillins is manifested by skin rash, urticaria, Quincke's edema, anaphylactic shock. In the absence of allergy, the patient is prescribed penicillins before the test for the sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics.
A large number of antibiotics used for colds are based on ampicillin, the most famous names of the drugs are Ampicillin-AKOS, Ampicillin sodium, Ampicillin trihydrate.
Ampicillin is considered one of the cheapest and effective antibiotics for colds, an important condition for its use is the absence of an allergy to the penicillin series.
Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (Amoxiclav) often becomes the antibiotic of choice for colds. Clavulanic acid protects amoxicillin from destruction, and the antibiotic limits the growth of bacteria and destroys them.
Amoxiclav analogs act similarly for colds with the preparations Augmentin, Panklav, Ranklav, Rapiklav.
Amoxicillin and its analogues are inexpensive antibiotics that help with colds, the prices of these drugs on average do not exceed 150 rubles. The cheapest in tablets and capsules are Amosin (59 rubles), Amoxicillin (60 rubles), Hikontsil (54 rubles).
The price of another analog of amoxicillin is somewhat higher - the antibiotic Flemoxin Solutab, it is also effective for colds, and is allowed for children. The average cost of packaging in Moscow and St. Petersburg is 300-400 rubles. The tablets have a pleasant taste, they can be dissolved and given in the form of a syrup or suspension to children.
Penicillin-type antibiotics are considered the safest, they are used in pediatric therapy for colds, inflammation of the bronchi, lungs, the names of the most prescribed drugs are Amoxicillin, Benzpenicillin, Amoxiclav.
We also offer to read the article Pills for colds.
Macrolide antibiotics are broad-spectrum drugs that are active in cases of infections of the upper respiratory tract of various origins.
Macrolides are allowed during pregnancy, choosing which antibiotics to prescribe for colds, the doctor stops his choice on this group of drugs.
Strong antibiotics for colds include drugs containing azithromycin as an active ingredient.
The most famous drug in this group is Sumamed. The antibiotic is allowed for children, 3 tablets are enough for a course of treatment for colds. The medicine is available in tablets, capsules, and a powder is also available for the manufacture of suspensions.
Azithromycin is the main active component of such Sumamed analogues as Azivok, Sumazid Azitral, Sumamed forte, Sumametsin, Hemomycin, Zitrocin, ZI-Factor, Azithromycin monohydrate, Azithromycin dihydrate, Azithrox, Azicide, Azivok.
Features of absorption, excretion of azithromycin from the body allow the use of these antibiotics for colds once a day. For colds, it is enough to take three antibiotic tablets, distributing one for each day.
One of the best macrolide antibiotics is considered Klabaks - a semisynthetic drug of the latest generation. The active substance of Klabax - clarithromycin, inhibits the activity of a typical, atypical pathogenic microflora, destroys chlamydia.
The antibiotic Klabaks not only kills pathogenic microflora, but also supports immunity, prevents the phenomenon of bacteremia - the penetration of bacteria into the blood.
Antibiotic Klabaks with a protracted cold promotes sputum discharge, suppresses respiratory infection of almost all types, and exhibits immunomodulating properties.
The active ingredient clarithromycin is also a part of Ecozetrin, Klacid, Arvitsin, Klarbakt, Klarithromycin Zentiva, Clerimed, Fromilida. These antibiotics act in a similar way with colds, and which of them to choose for treatment is often determined not only by the doctor, but also by the price.
The most expensive tablets with the antibiotic clarithromycin - Klacid (England, USA) - 953 rubles., 943 rubles., The more affordable price for the drug Clerimed (Cyprus) - 152 rubles. in pharmacies in Moscow and St. Petersburg.
Perhaps you were looking for how to treat a cold during pregnancy? Details in our article Treatment of the common cold with medicines during pregnancy.
Cephalosporins are a large group of drugs active against a wide range of pathogens. The properties of cephalosporins of the 1st and 2nd generation are well studied.
New drugs from 3 and 4 generations are highly effective for respiratory infections, are prescribed for adults. Features of the use of the latest generation of cephalosporins for children have not been fully studied, therefore, a child under 18 years of age is prescribed for treatment of cephalosporins of 1 and 2 generations.
Antibiotics of this group are highly active against pneumococci and a number of other pathogens of respiratory diseases. Fluoroquinolones can be used for colds in people over 18 years of age.
Sparfloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin have a wide spectrum of action, demonstrate effectiveness against pathogens with high resistance, are used once a day.
The negative side of fluoroquinolones is a violation of the heart rhythm. These drugs are prescribed with extreme caution in old age.
Antibiotics for children
Children's antibiotics for colds should not cause side effects and complications. Instead of pills, children are given drugs in the form of sweet syrup, suspension. If necessary, with a cold, intramuscular injections of antibiotics are prescribed.
The list of antibiotics against colds in children is opened by antibacterial drugs from the penicillin group Amoxicillin, Augmentin, Flemoxin Solutab. Of macrolides for colds in children, Sumamed forte is used.
For the treatment of children with bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract, cephalosporins of the 1st and 2nd generation cefadroxil, cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefaclor are allowed. For severe colds, children are given tablets of Cephalexin, Zinnat, Ceclor, Duracef.
In severe colds, complications, antibiotics are prescribed in injections, the names of the often prescribed are Amoxiclav, Augmentin, Azithromycin.
The most effective antibiotics for colds are medications established according to the results of a bacterial study that selectively act on the pathogen of inflammation.
A variety of antibiotics in tablets can significantly reduce the administration of drugs in injections. A treatment regimen is also used, in which, in the early days, a child’s serious condition is treated with injections, and then they are transferred to treatment with tablets.
Antibiotics contraindicated in children
For children with a cold, antibiotics are not prescribed:
- tetracyclines - doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline,
- cephalosporins 4 generations,
Tetracycline disrupts the formation of tooth enamel, affects protein synthesis, destroys the liver. Aminoglycosides are ototoxic compounds that damage the auditory nerve, causing hearing loss, deafness.
The most common aminoglycoside in children's practice is gentamicin, the purpose of this antibiotic is not justified due to the ototoxic effect and the lack of sensitivity to pneumococci.
Aminoglycosides, tetracyclines are not prescribed for children under 8 years of age. Unreasonable treatment of bacterial complications of the common cold in children with lincomycin. It interacts with other antibiotics, is not compatible with ampicillin, calcium gluconate, heparin.
Ampicillin injections should not be prescribed to children, like lincomycin, this antibiotic is considered one of the most dangerous for normal intestinal microflora, contributes to the development of dysbiosis.
Chloramphenicol violates blood formation. In children under 3 years of age, chloramphenicol affects the liver, central nervous system.
Antibiotics from the 3rd generation cephalosporin group (ceftriaxone) in young children can cause dysbiosis with almost complete replacement of their own beneficial intestinal microflora with a pathogenic bacterial, fungal microbiota.
Antibiotics fluoroquinolones disrupt the formation of cartilage in the joints, are prohibited for pregnant women and children, and not only for colds, but also for systemic diseases.
Features of treatment
Antibiotics are always taken in courses. Treatment is continued in those cases when the improvement in well-being occurred in the first days after the start of treatment.
When treating with antibiotics, the single dosage and daily dose specified in the instructions are observed. The antibiotic is prescribed by the doctor, treatment is carried out under medical supervision.
Due to the ability of microorganisms to adapt to the drug, mutate, in the absence of the treatment effect, the doctor replaces the antibiotic.
Excessive use of antibiotics is also dangerous for the health of the patient. Especially severe consequences are observed with unsystematic use of antibacterial drugs in children.
Proper nutrition, strict adherence to the instructions and prescriptions of the doctor are the conditions under which antibiotic treatment will relieve the disease and will not lead to a decrease in immunity, dysbiosis and complications.